20071204/★2006人口普查分析:加拿大外国出生人口现状

Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Findings
By Tina Chui, Kelly Tran and Hélène Maheux, Social and Aboriginal Statistics Division, Statistics Canada

*Highlights

Immigration has played an important part in shaping Canada’s population. Some immigrants came a long time ago and some recently. Today, immigration in Canada has a far-reaching impact on the country’s population growth. It was responsible for two-thirds of our population growth in the intercensal period of 2001 and 2006. Due to the settlement pattern of the foreign-born in the recent decades, the effect of immigration is mostly felt in Canada’s largest urban centres and their surrounding municipalities. The 2006 portrait of the foreign-born population was a diverse one reflecting the waves of immigrants from different regions around the world.

This report examines two concepts related to the foreign-born population. Please refer to the definitions of these two concepts.

*Immigration: Driver of population growth

-Proportion of foreign-born highest in 75 years
-Proportion of Canada’s foreign-born population second to Australia

*Immigrants came from many countries

-Most recent immigrants still came from Asia, but their share remained stable
-Slight increase in share of newcomers from Central and South America, the Caribbean and Africa
-Linguistic diversity of the immigrant population

*Higher proportion of recent immigrant in the younger age groups

*Immigrants in the provinces and territories

-Atlantic region: Increase in foreign-born population in all four provinces
-Quebec: Highest proportion of foreign-born population ever
-Ontario: Province of choice for most newcomers to Canada
-The Prairies: More newcomers chose to live in Alberta and Manitoba
-British Columbia: Second-highest proportion of foreign-born
-Territories: Few foreign-born in the North

*Immigrants in metropolitan areas

-Vast majority of immigrants chose city life
-Three largest centres attracted 7 out of every 10 newcomers
-Some signs of choosing metropolitan areas other than the ‘big three’
-Newcomers in suburbs

*Citizenship

-Most immigrants held Canadian citizenship
-A small proportion of Canadians had multiple citizenship

*Portraits of major metropolitan centres

-Halifax: Largest foreign-born population in Atlantic provinces
-Montréal: The third-largest foreign-born population
-Ottawa – Gatineau: Fifth-largest proportion of foreign-born
-Toronto: Canada’s major immigrant gateway
-Hamilton: Third-highest proportion of foreign-born in the country
-Winnipeg: Philippines the number one source country of recent immigrants
-Edmonton: Attracted a larger share of newcomers in 2006
-Calgary: Foreign-born population growing faster than the Canadian-born population
-Vancouver: Canada’s immigrant gateway in the West

*Other census metropolitan areas

来源:http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/immcit/index.cfm

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Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Highlights

-The 2006 Census enumerated 6,186,950 foreign-born in Canada, representing virtually one in five (19.8%) of the total population. This is the highest proportion in 75 years.

-Between 2001 and 2006, Canada’s foreign-born population increased by 13.6%. This was four times higher than the Canadian-born population, which grew by 3.3% during the same period.

-At 19.8%, Canada had a higher proportion of foreign-born than the United States of America (12.5%) and lower than Australia (22.2%).

-The census estimated that 1,110,000 recent immigrants came to Canada between January 1, 2001 and May 16, 2006. These newcomers made up 17.9% of the total foreign-born population, and 3.6% of Canada’s 31.2 million total population.

-Recent immigrants born in Asia (including the Middle East) made up the largest proportion of newcomers to Canada in 2006 (58.3%). This proportion was virtually unchanged from 59.4% in 2001.In contrast, in 1971, only 12.1% of recent immigrants for this period were born in Asia (including the Middle East).

-Newcomers born in Europe made up the second-largest group (16.1%) of recent immigrants in 2006. Europe used to be the main source region of immigrants. In 1971, they accounted for 61.6% of newcomers to Canada.

-An estimated 10.8% of recent immigrants were born in Central and South America and the Caribbean, up from 8.9% in 2001. Another 10.6% newcomers to Canada in 2006 were born in Africa, also up from 8.3% in 2001.

-A majority (70.2%) of the foreign-born population in 2006 reported a mother tongue other than English or French. Among these individuals, the largest proportion, one in five (18.6%), reported Chinese languages. It was followed by Italian (6.6%), Punjabi (5.9%), Spanish (5.8%), German (5.4%), Tagalog (4.8%) and Arabic (4.7%).

-Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver were home to 68.9% of the recent immigrants in 2006. In contrast, slightly over one-third (34.4%) of Canada’s total population lived in these three census metropolitan areas.

-There were some signs that recent immigrants are choosing to settle in smaller metropolitan areas. Individually, 5.2% of recent immigrants had settled in Calgary, 2.9% chose Edmonton and 2.2% chose Winnipeg. These were all increases from 2001. Another 3.2% of recent immigrants had settled in Ottawa – Gatineau, a slight decline from 4% in 2001.

-The majority (85.1%) of the foreign-born who were eligible for Canadian citizenship in 2006 had become naturalized.

-The census enumerated 863,100 individuals, or 2.8% of the population, who reported a Canadian citizenship and at least one other citizenship. Most of them (80.2%) were foreign-born.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Immigration: Driver of population growth

Proportion of foreign-born highest in 75 years

New data from the 2006 Census show that the proportion of Canada’s population who were born outside the country reached its highest level in 75 years.

The census enumerated 6,186,950 foreign-born in Canada in 2006. They represented virtually one in five (19.8%) of the total population, the highest proportion since 1931, when 22.2% of the population was foreign-born. In 2001, the foreign-born represented 18.4% of the population.

The proportion of the foreign-born fell during the Depression and the Second World War, leveling out at 14.7% in 1951. Since then, it has been rising.

The number of the foreign-born in Canada has nearly tripled during the past 75 years, and their share is inching towards the levels in 1911 to 1931. This is a result of the sustained number of immigrants admitted annually to the country and the slow population growth from natural increase (that is, with the relatively low fertility rate, the growth caused by more births than deaths has slowed down).

Between 2001 and 2006, Canada’s foreign-born population grew by 13.6%. This was four times faster than the Canadian-born population, which increased by 3.3%.

Overall, Canada’s total population increased by 1.6 million between 2001 and 2006, a growth rate of 5.4% from 2001. The census estimated 1,110,000 newcomers arrived in the country between January 1, 2001 and May 16, 2006. They were responsible for more than two-thirds (69.3%) of this population growth.

Figure 1 Number and share of the foreign-born population in Canada, 1901 to 2006
chart1.jpg
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/chart1.jpg
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1901 to 2006.

DescriptionThis graph shows the number of foreign-born and its proportion in the total population over the past105 years.

The census enumerated 6,186,950 foreign-born in Canada in 2006. By comparison, the 1901 Census counted fewer than one million foreign-born. This number gradually rose to almost 1.6 million people born outside Canada in 1911, to almost 2 million in 1921 and to 2.3 million in 1931. However, the foreign-born population fell over the war years. The 1941 Census showed 2.0 million in 1941, and that of 1951, 2.1 million. Since then, the foreign-born population has been growing steadily, rising from 2.1 million in 1951 to 2.8 million in 1961, to 3.3 million in 1971, to 3.8 million in 1981, to 4.3 million in 1991, to 4.9 million in 1996, to 5.5 million in 2001 and finally, close to 6.2 million in 2006.

This graph also shows that the proportion of people born outside Canada has reached its highest level in 75 years. In 2006, 19.8% of the entire population was people born outside Canada. This is the highest proportion recorded since 1931, when foreign-born represented 22.2% of the population.

The lowest proportion of foreign-born was 13%, recorded at the turn of the last century in the 1901 Census. This proportion almost doubled, reaching approximately 22%, between 1911 and 1931. Because of the low immigration levels during the Depression and war years, the proportion of foreign-born dropped to 17.5% in 1941 and 14.7% in 1951, but has been rising steadily since then. The proportion of foreign-born people was 15.6% in 1961, 15.3% in 1971, 16% in 1981, 16.1% in 1991 and 18.4% in 2001.

Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1901 to 2006.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Driver of population growth

Proportion of Canada’s foreign-born population second to Australia

Among the Western countries that were also major immigrant-receiving countries, the proportion of the foreign-born population in Canada was exceeded in one other country: Australia. According to the Census conducted in 2006 by the Australia Bureau of Statistics, 22.2% of Australia’s population was foreign-born, unchanged from 1996.

However, the proportion of Canada’s foreign-born population was much higher than that of the United States of America. According to the American Community Survey in 2006, the foreign?born represented 12.5% of the U.S. population.

Australia and the United States also saw increases in immigration during the first five years of the new millennium.

Canada has been the country of choice for many immigrants. Asked about their immigration decision, virtually all newcomers (98%) in the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada reported that they did not have any other country in mind when they put in their application to come to Canada. They also reported positive impressions of their move to the country. Asked why they came to Canada, the largest proportion of them cited improving the future for their family and reuniting with family and close friends.1

Asked four years later why they planned to stay in Canada permanently, these newcomers most frequently cited the quality of life here and the positive future prospects for their family.2

Note:

1.Statistics Canada, 2003, Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: Process, Progress and Prospects, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-611.
2.Statistics Canada, 2007, Canadian Social Trends. Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 11-008. Special edition.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Immigrants came from many countries

*Most recent immigrants still came from Asia, but their share remained stable

The nearly 6.2 million foreign-born people in Canada reported more than 200 countries of origin on the 2006 Census.

Among the more than 1.1 million recent immigrants who arrived between 2001 and 2006, almost 6 in 10 (58.3%) were born in Asian countries, including the Middle East.

The share of recent immigrants born in Asia (including the Middle East) had increased steadily since the late 1970s. But in 2006, the share (58.3%) was virtually unchanged from 59.4% in 2001.

Immigrants from Asia did not come in large numbers until a few decades ago. In 1971, 61.6% of newcomers to Canada were from Europe. Only 12.1% of newcomers who arrived in the late 1960s were Asian-born. The proportion of Asian-born new immigrants increased to 38.9% in the late 1970s. By the late 1980s, one-half (50.9%) of the newcomers were born in Asia, as recorded in the 1991 Census.

This shift in the source of immigration to Canada since the 1970s was due to a number of factors, such as changes in Canada’s immigration programs to build on social, humanitarian and economic goals, and international events affecting the movements of migrants and refugees.

As a result of the changing immigrant source countries, the proportion of the foreign-born population who were born in Asia and the Middle East (40.8%) surpassed the proportion born in Europe (36.8%) for the first time in 2006.

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Figure 2 Region of birth of recent immigrants to Canada, 1971 to 2006
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/chart2.jpg

Notes:
1.’Recent immigrants’ refers to landed immigrants who arrived in Canada within fiveyears prior to a given census.
2.”Other” includes Greenland, St Pierre and Miquelon, the category ‘other country’, as well as a small number of immigrants born in Canada.
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1971 to 2006.

Description

This graph shows the distribution of recent immigrants by regions of birth and census year. Recent immigrants refers to landed immigrants who arrived within five years prior to a given census year.

In 1971, most immigrants were born in Europe, representing 61.6% of all new immigrants at the time. Over the years, this share declined, reaching 16.1% of all recent immigrants in 2006.

In contrast, the share of recent immigrants born in Asia (including the Middle East) grew steadily. In 1971, 12.1% of recent immigrants were born in this region. This share rose to 38.9% in 1981, to 50.9% in 1991 and to 59.4% in 2001. In 2006, the share of recent immigrants born in Asia (including the Middle East) was 58.3%.

The graph also shows that an increasingly larger share of recent immigrants were born in Africa. According to the 1971 Census, only 3.2% of recent immigrants at the time were born in this part of the world. This share has been rising since then, reaching 10.6% of all recent immigrants in 2006.

Immigrants born in Central America, South America, the Caribbean and Bermuda represented 10.8% of all recent immigrants in 2006, up from 8.9% in 2001. This share is also higher than 1971 (9%) but lower than all other census years.

Immigrants born in the United States represented 3.5% of all new immigrants who arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006. This is a similar share when compared to the previous two Censuses, but smaller when compared to the 1970 and 1980 Censuses.

Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1971 to 2006.

Map (PDF): World. Place of birth of recent immigrants to Canada, 2006
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/world_recentimmig_ec.pdf

*China again top source country for newcomers

The People’s Republic of China was again the leading source country of newcomers to Canada. Fully 14% of recent immigrants who arrived between 2001 and 2006 came from the People’s Republic of China.

The People’s Republic of China was followed by India, representing 11.6% of new immigrants, the Philippines (7%) and Pakistan (5.2%) — the same order as in 2001. These four Asian countries alone accounted for 37.8% of all newcomers in 2006.

In total, there were six of the top 10 source countries for recent immigrants in Asia and the Middle East. The other two were South Korea, which accounted for 3.2% of newcomers, and Iran, which accounted for 2.5%.

*Recent European immigrants came from the Eastern Europe

Although the number of immigrants from Europe has declined over the years, they still made up the second-largest group of newcomers. In 2006, they accounted for 16.1% of recent immigrants. However, this was well below the proportion of 61.6% for European-born newcomers back in 1971.

The two most common European countries of origin for newcomers in 2006 were Romania and the United Kingdom. This represented a change over the decades among European-born immigrants. Formerly, most newcomers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, the Netherlands and Portugal.

The 1990s saw an increase of immigrants from the Eastern Europe, a trend which has continued. In fact, immigrants born in Romania represented 2.5% of all newcomers during the past five years, surpassing the 2.3% of newcomers born in the United Kingdom.

Furthermore, newcomers born in the Russian Federation accounted for 1.9% of all recent immigrants, higher than the proportion of 1.5% from France.

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Table 1 Top 10 countries of birth of recent immigrants, 1981 to 2006
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Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Immigrants came from many countries

*Slight increase in share of newcomers from Central and South America, the Caribbean and Africa

The third-largest group of recent immigrants in 2006 was from Central and South America and the Caribbean. They accounted for 10.8% of all newcomers, up slightly from 8.9% in 2001.

Colombia and Mexico were the two leading source countries of recent immigrants from that region. They accounted for 2.3% and 1.5%, respectively, of all recent arrivals during the previous five years.

As well, the 2006 Census found a slight increase in the share of recent immigrants from Africa. In the past, newcomers from Africa had accounted for less than 10% of recent immigrants. According to the 2006 Census, this share has risen to nearly 10.6%.

The two leading source countries in Africa were Algeria (which accounted for 1.5% of all newcomers) and Morocco (1.3%).


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Immigrants came from many countries

Linguistic diversity of the immigrant population

Immigration has contributed to linguistic diversity in Canada. In 2006, nearly 150 languages were reported as a mother tongue among the foreign-born population. (Mother tongue is defined as the first language a person has learned at home in childhood and still understands at the time of the census.)

English was the largest language group. About one-fourth of Canada’s foreign-born population of 6.2 million said that English alone was the language they learned during childhood and still understood.

A small share (3.1%) of the foreign-born population reported French as their only mother tongue. However, the share was much higher in Quebec, where 17.5% of the foreign-born population in the province reported French as their only mother tongue.

Data from the 2006 Census showed that 70.2% of the foreign-born population had a mother tongue other than English or French3, an increase from 67.5% in 2001. The linguistic profile of these immigrants reflected the leading source countries of immigrants to Canada from different waves.

Of the foreign-born who reported mother tongue(s) other than English or French, the largest proportion, one in five (18.6%), reported Chinese, including the various dialects, such as Cantonese and Mandarin.

It was followed by Italian (6.6%), Punjabi (5.9%), Spanish (5.8%), German (5.4%), Tagalog (4.8%) and Arabic (4.7%).

A small proportion (2.4%) of the foreign-born population reported multiple mother tongues with at least one official language.

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Figure 3 Mother tongue of recent immigrants, 1981 to 2006
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/chart3.jpg

Note:
‘Recent immigrants’ refers to landed immigrants who arrived in Canada within five years prior to a given census.
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1981 to 2006.

Description

This figure shows the mother tongues of recent immigrants by census year. Recent immigrants refers to landed immigrants who arrived within five years prior to a given census year.

In the last 25 years, the proportion of recent immigrants whose mother tongue is neither English nor French has increased. In 1981, slightly over one-half (52%) of the recent immigrants at the time reported a mother tongue other than English and French and this proportion has increased steadily since then and has reached almost 80% of all newcomers in 2006.

In contrast, the proportion of recent immigrants who reported English as their only mother tongue has declined, from 36.2% in 1981 to 20.6% in 1991, to 14.3% in 2001 and to 13.3% in 2006.

A small proportion of recent immigrants reported French as their only mother tongue. In 1981, 4.6% of all recent immigrants reported French as their only mother tongue. The proportion decreased in 1991 to 2.7%, but it has been increasing gradually since then. In 2006, 3.9% of all newcomers reported French as their only mother tongue.

The percentage of recent immigrants in 1981, who claimed multiple languages with at least one official language as their mother tongue was 6.8%. The proportion declined to 2.7% in 1991. Since then the proportion of recent immigrants speaking multiple languages with at least one official language has remained unchanged.

Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 1981 to 2006.

*Most immigrants reported knowledge of English and/or French

In 2006, the majority of the foreign-born (93.6%) reported that they could converse in English and/or French. This was also the case for newcomers (90.7%), including those who had a mother tongue other than English or French, 88.5% of whom reported knowledge of at least one official language. Only a small proportion of the newcomers (9.3%) said that they were not able to conduct a conversation in either English or French.

Furthermore, use of English and/or French increased as immigrants lived in Canada longer. Among the foreign-born non-English, non-French speakers who came before 1961, a majority (70.2%) reported speaking at least one official language at home in 2006. In contrast, a majority (74.4%) of newcomers who did not have English or French as their mother tongue reported speaking a non-official language most often at home.

Official language proficiency is an important issue for immigrant adjustment in Canada. A recent Statistics Canada survey, the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada, indicated that learning English or French was one of the challenges frequently cited by newcomers, second only to finding an adequate job.4

For a more detailed discussion of the language dynamics of immigrants in Canada, see The Evolving Linguistic Portrait, 2006 Census.

Note :
3.Include a small number of individuals reporting multiple non-official languages as mother tongue.
4.Statistics Canada, 2007, Canadian Social Trends, Statistics Canada, Catalogue no. 11-008, Special edition.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Higher proportion of recent immigrant in the younger age groups

People tend to migrate while they are young. As a result, the immigrants who arrived in Canada since 2001 were over-represented in the younger age brackets compared with the Canadian-born population.

In 2006, 57.3% of immigrants who came to Canada in the last five years were in the prime-working age group of 25 to 54. In contrast, only 42.3% of the Canadian-born population were in this age group.

Only 4.1% of newcomers were in the older working-age group of 55 to 64. In comparison, slightly more than one in 10 (10.7%) of the Canadian-born were in this pre-retirement age bracket.

Together, recent immigrants to Canada added about 681,900 individuals to the working-age population of 25 to 64. They accounted for 3.9% of the population in this age group.

About 223,200 newcomers were children aged 14 and under. They represented one in five of the recent immigrants to Canada. This proportion is about the same (21%) as the one for Canadian-born children of the same age group.

Another 167,600 newcomers to Canada, or 15.1%, were youth aged 15 to 24. and again, this proportion is similar (14.4%) to the one for Canadian-born youth.

At the other end of the age spectrum, 3.4% of immigrants who came to Canada in the last five years were aged 65 and over. In contrast, 11.5% of the Canadian-born were in this older age group.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Immigrants in the provinces and territories

The majority of the foreign-born population (86.8%) lived in three provinces: Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia. As well, the three provinces received 85.8% of newcomers who arrived in Canada since 2001.

In fact, Ontario and British Columbia were home to a higher share of foreign-born and recent immigrants than their share of the Canadian population. In 2006, 38.5% of the total population in Canada lived in Ontario, but the province took in over one-half (54.9%) of the foreign-born population and one-half (52.3%) of the recent immigrants.

British Columbia was home to 13% of the total Canadian population, compared to 18.1% of the foreign-born population and 16% of newcomers.

Historically, Quebec has had a smaller share of the foreign-born than its total population share. This was still the case in 2006. Quebec had close to one-quarter (23.8%) of the country’s population. In contrast, the province was home to 13.8% of the foreign-born population and 17.5% of recent immigrants.

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Table 2 Distribution of total population, total immigrant population and recent immigrants, Canada, provinces and territories, 2006 Census

Notes:
1′.Immigrant population’, also known as ‘foreign-born population’, is defined in the 2006 Census as persons who are, or have been, landed immigrants in Canada.
2.Recent immigrants refer to immigrants who came to Canada between January 1, 2001 and May 16, 2006.
3.This ratio shows whether the share of recent immigrants in a given location is higher than the share of the total population in the same location. For example, if 5% of recent immigrants live in a place and the same share (5%) of the total population lives there, then the ratio will be 1.0.
Source: Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2006.

Map(Flash)
Canada. Immigrants as a percentage of each province’s total population, 1911 to 2006 censuses
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/immcit/vignettes/NatHistImmig_ec.html

*Atlantic region: Increase in foreign-born population in all four provinces

The census counted an estimated 84,800 foreign-born people in the four Atlantic provinces combined. This was an increase of 8,800 immigrants from 2001, and a growth rate of 11.6%.

In fact, this growth in the foreign-born population offset to a small extent a 0.6% decline in the Canadian-born population between 2001 and 2006. As a result, the region’s overall population declined by 0.1%.

Foreign-born individuals made up only 3.8% of Atlantic Canada’s total population.

Individually, Nova Scotia had 45,190 foreign-born persons, who represented 5% of the provincial population, the largest percentage of the four provinces. New Brunswick had 26,400, or 3.7% of its population. Prince Edward Island had 4,800, about 3.6% of its population. And Newfoundland and Labrador had 8,400, who accounted for only 1.7% of its population.

The Atlantic region attracted a slightly larger share of recent immigrants who came to Canada between 2001 and 2006. During this period, an estimated 13,500 recent immigrants settled in the Atlantic region, or 1.2% of the 1.1 million newcomers who arrived in Canada in the last five years. During the previous five-year period of 1996 and 2001, 1% of newcomers settled in Atlantic Canada.

The United States was the top source country of newcomers to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island. The United Kingdom was the top source country for Newfoundland and Labrador.

*Quebec: Highest proportion of foreign-born population ever

The foreign-born chose to settle in Quebec at a faster pace than in any other province during the past five years, according to data from the 2006 Census.

The 2006 Census enumerated a total of 851,600 foreign-born residents in Quebec, an increase of 144,600 individuals, or 20.5%, from 2001. This was higher than the 13.6% growth rate in the foreign-born population for the entire country during this period.

People born outside Canada accounted for 11.5% of Quebec’s total population in 2006, the highest proportion ever in the province’s history. In 2001, they represented 9.9% of the population.

In fact, Quebec was the province with the second-highest share, of newcomers who had arrived in Canada during the previous five years, the first being Ontario. This was due to increased immigration to the province since 2001. Of the estimated 1,110,000 new immigrants, 17.5% lived in Quebec. In 2001, a smaller proportion of newcomers (13.7%) chose to live in Quebec.

Most of Quebec’s foreign-born chose to live in the census metropolitan area of Montréal (86.9%). However, in 2006, there was an increase of foreign-born settling in other Quebec metropolitan areas, such as Québec (3.1%), the Québec portion of the census metropolitan area of Ottawa – Gatineau (2.7%) and the census metropolitan area of Sherbrooke (1.2%).

*Ontario: Province of choice for most newcomers to Canada

Ontario continued to be the province of choice for more than half (52.3%) of the 1.1 million newcomers who arrived in Canada during the past five years. This was down slightly from the previous cohort of recent arrivals when 55.9% of newcomers to Canada who settled in Ontario between 1996 and 2001.

In total, the census enumerated 3,398,700 foreign-born individuals in Ontario. They represented 28.3% of the province’s population, the highest proportion of all 10 provinces and the highest in Ontario’s history.

Most foreign-born Ontarians lived in the census metropolitan area of Toronto (68.3%). The other Ontario metropolitan areas that were home to at least 2% of the province’s foreign-born population were the Ontario part of Ottawa – Gatineau (5.3%), Hamilton (4.9%), Kitchener (3%), London (2.6%) and Windsor (2.2%).

*The Prairies: More newcomers chose to live in Alberta and Manitoba

A growing share of recent immigrants chose to settle in both Alberta and Manitoba during the past five years, according to the 2006 Census. But the share of recent immigrants in Saskatchewan was relatively unchanged from the last census.

About 9.3%, or 103,700, of the 1.1 million new immigrants who came to Canada between 2001 and 2006 settled in Alberta. This was an increase from the last census in 2001, when 6.9% of newcomers settled there.

Similarly, an estimated 31,200 newcomers settled in Manitoba, about 2.8% of the total recent immigrants. This was higher than the estimated 17,500, or 1.8% of newcomers in 2001.

In Alberta, the census enumerated a total of 527,000 foreign-born individuals, who represented 16.2% of its population. This proportion was the third-highest in Canada, after Ontario and British Columbia.

In Manitoba, 151,200 people were born outside Canada, 13.3% of the province’s population. This was the fourth-highest proportion in Canada.

*British Columbia: Second-highest proportion of foreign-born

British Columbia’s population had the second-highest proportion of foreign-born individuals of all the provinces.

The census enumerated 1,119,200 foreign-born individuals in British Columbia. They accounted for 27.5% of the province’s population, up from 26.1% in 2001 and 22.3% in 1991.

British Columbia’s proportion of foreign-born population in 2006 was second only to Ontario, where the foreign-born represented 28.3% of the population.

About 16%, or 177,800, of the 1.1 million newest immigrants who came to Canada during the past five years settled in British Columbia.

*Territories: Few foreign-born in the North

The territories were home to 0.3% of Canada’s total population. An even smaller share of recent immigrants lived in the North (0.1%).

Only about 6,300 foreign-born individuals resided in the territories, according to the census. They represented only 0.1% of the total foreign-born population in the country and 6.2% of the population in the North.

The largest proportion of the foreign-born in the territories came from the United Kingdom (15.7%), the United States of America (13.9%) and the Philippines (12.1%).

Only about 1,000 newcomers chose to settle in the territories between 2001 and 2006. The Philippines was the leading source country, accounting for 24.5% of these recent arrivals.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Immigrants in metropolitan areas

*Vast majority of immigrants chose city life

Unlike immigrants who arrived years ago in search of good farmland to till, today’s immigrants are mostly urban dwellers. In fact, they are much more likely to live in a metropolitan area than the Canadian-born population.

In 2006, 94.9% of Canada’s foreign-born population and 97.2% of recent immigrants who landed in the last five years lived in either a census metropolitan area or a census agglomeration, i.e., urban community. This compares with 77.5% of the Canadian-born population.

Conversely, only 5.1% of the immigrant population lived in a rural area in 2006, compared with 22.5% of the Canadian-born population.

*Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver home to nearly two-thirds of Canada’s foreign-born population

Canada’s three largest census metropolitan areas — Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver — were home to 3,891,800 foreign-born people in 2006, who made up nearly two-thirds (62.9%) of Canada’s total foreign-born population.

In contrast, these three urban areas were home to slightly more than one-quarter (27.1%) of the Canadian-born population.

The 2006 Census enumerated 2,320,200 foreign-born people in Toronto, 831,300 in Vancouver and 740,400 in Montréal. These individuals represented 45.7% of Toronto’s population, 39.6% of Vancouver’s and 20.6% of Montréal’s.

Immigration has been the major factor in the population growth of these three census metropolitan areas.

Toronto and Vancouver led major cities in Australia and the United States in terms of the proportion of its population born outside the country. Toronto’s and Vancouver’s closest competitors were Miami, Florida, where 36.5% of the population was foreign-born, and Los Angeles, California, where the proportion was 34.7%.

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Figure 4 Foreign-born as a percentage of metropolitan population, 2006

Note:The data from the United States is from 2005.

Description

This graph compares selected cities in Australia, the United States and Canada in terms of the proportions of its population born outside the country. Toronto and Vancouver recorded the highest proportions of foreign-born population, with 45.7% and 39.6%, respectively. These were followed by Miami (Florida) with 36.5%, Los Angeles with 34.7%, Sydney (Australia) with 31.7%, Melbourne with 28.9%, New York City with 27.6%, Montréal with 20.6% and Washington with 19.9%.

Sources: Statistics Canada, 2006 Census; Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2006 Census; U.S. Census Bureau, 2005 American Community Survey.

*Three largest centres attracted 7 out of every 10 newcomers

Among all the major census metropolitan areas, Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver again attracted most of the new immigrants who came between 2001 and 2006.

Of the 1,110,000 newcomers who arrived in Canada during the past five years, 68.9% (765,000) chose to settle in one of these three census metropolitan areas. About 28.3% spread across the remaining urban areas, while only about 2.8% chose to live in a rural area.

The largest number of newcomers (447,900), went to Toronto, while 165,300 chose Montréal and 151,700 settled in Vancouver.

Toronto’s share of the total recent immigrants was about 40.4%, a slight decline from 43.1% in the 2001 Census.

Vancouver’s share between 2001 and 2006 dropped from 17.6% to 13.7%. As a result, Vancouver fell from second to third place among the most popular urban areas for new immigrants.

Montréal, which rose from third place to second, was home to 14.9% of recent immigrants in 2006, compared with 11.9% in 2001.

The reasons behind newcomers choosing to settle in Canada’s three largest census metropolitan areas varied, according to the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada.

The most cited reason for settling in Toronto, Montréal or Vancouver was to join the social support networks of family and friends. Among newcomers in Toronto, the second-most cited reason was the job prospects that Toronto could offer. Among newcomers in Montréal, it was language, and among those in Vancouver, it was climate.5

Note :
5. Statistics Canada, 2003, Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada: Process, Progress and Prospects, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-611.

*Some signs of choosing metropolitan areas other than the ‘big three’

As the proportion of new immigrants who have settled in Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver has declined over time, an increasing share of newcomers choose to live in census metropolitan areas other than the three largest.

In 1996, 73.4% of immigrants who arrived in the early half of the 1990s chose to live in these three census metropolitan areas. This proportion dropped slightly, to 72.6%, in 2001 and further, to 68.9%, in 2006.

As a result, in 2006, 28.3% of newcomers resided in a metropolitan area other than Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver, up from 24.7% in 2001.

For example, six other census metropolitan areas combined — Calgary, Ottawa – Gatineau, Edmonton, Winnipeg, Hamilton and London — attracted 16.6% of all newcomers during the past five years. In 2001, these centres took in 14.3% of all newcomers.

The census metropolitan area of Calgary ranked fourth in 2006 in its share of recent immigrants. About 57,900 newcomers, or 5.2% of individuals who arrived in Canada in the last five years, settled in Calgary. This was an increase from 3.8% in 2001.

Edmonton, Winnipeg and London recorded similar gains. In 2006, Edmonton received 2.9% of all newcomers, up from 2.2% in 2001. Winnipeg’s share increased from 1.4% in 2001 to 2.2% in 2006, while London’s edged up from 1% to 1.2%.

Hamilton’s share of newcomers remained unchanged at 1.9%. About 3.2% of newcomers settled in Ottawa – Gatineau, putting it in fifth spot, but this proportion showed a slight decline from 4% in 2001.

table3a.jpg
table3b.jpg
Table 3 Distribution of total population, total immigrant population and recent immigrants, Canada and census metropolitan areas, 2006 and 2001 censuses

Notes:

1.’Immigrant population’, also known as ‘foreign-born population’, is defined in the 2006 and 2001 Census as persons who are, or have been, landed immigrants in Canada.
2.’Recent immigrants’ refer to immigrants who came to Canada between January 1, 2001 and May 16, 2006.
3.’Recent immigrants’ refer to immigrants who came to Canada between January 1, 1996 and May 15, 2001.
4.This ratio shows whether the share of recent immigrants in a given location is higher than the share of the total population in the same location. For example, if 5% of recent immigrants live in a place and the same share (5%) of the total population lives there, then the ratio will be 1.0.
Sources: Statistics Canada, censuses of population, 2001 and 2006.

http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/table3a.jpg
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/table3b.jpg

*Newcomers in suburbs

The impact of immigration on the three largest census metropolitan areas (CMAs) of Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver varied because the newcomers were more likely to live in certain municipalities within these metropolitan areas.

In Toronto, most of the growth in the foreign-born population occurred in the municipalities surrounding the City of Toronto. Newcomers to Canada were largely responsible for the growth of some of these municipalities. For example, Mississauga took in 16.7% of newcomers to the Toronto CMA in 2006, an increase from 14.5% in 2001. Brampton’s share of recent immigrants grew to 9.6% in 2006 from 5% five years before. Vaughan, home to 1.9% of newcomers in 2001, grew to 2.5% in 2006.

In Vancouver, nearly three-quarters (74.7%) of the metropolitan area’s recent immigrants lived in just the four municipalities of the City of Vancouver, Richmond, Burnaby and Surrey in 2006. But unlike the census metropolitan areas of Toronto and Montréal, where the majority of newcomers still lived in the central municipality, only 28.7% of newcomers lived in the City of Vancouver, and the remaining 46% resided in the other three municipalities. In fact, Surrey was home to 19.3% of newcomers in 2006, an increase from 14.1% in 2001.

In Montréal, a majority of the newcomers (76.3%) lived in the City of Montréal in 2006. This was a drop from 2001, when 81.9% of newcomers lived in the city. Between 2001 and 2006, the metropolitan area of Montréal also saw an increase of newcomers settling in surrounding municipalities such as Laval, Longueuil, Brossard, Dollard-des-Ormeaux and C?te-Saint-Luc. Collectively, these surrounding municipalities received 15% of newcomers in 2006, compared with 11.2% in 2001.


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Citizenship

*Most immigrants held Canadian citizenship

To be eligible for Canadian citizenship, immigrants must meet several requirements, including at least three years of residency in Canada and knowledge of an official language. They may also be required to take a knowledge test.

The vast majority of foreign-born people who were eligible for Canadian citizenship chose to become Canadian. In 2006, 85.1% of eligible foreign-born people were Canadian citizens, a slight increase from 83.9% in 2001.

Those who had been in Canada the longest were the most likely to hold Canadian citizenship, as they had had more time to make the decision to apply for it. The vast majority (94.1%) who arrived before 1961 had Canadian citizenship. Similarly, 89.1% of those who came in the 1960s and 1970s had become naturalized citizens. The proportion of naturalized citizens was lower (84.1%) among those who arrived in the 1990s.

When asked about their citizenship intention six months after landing in Canada, the vast majority (91%) of the respondents in the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada expressed their intent to settle in Canada permanently and become Canadian citizens. Four years later, 15% of the newcomers who were interviewed once again had obtained Canadian citizenship.

*A small proportion of Canadians had multiple citizenship

Since 1977, Canada has recognized multiple citizenships; that is, Canadian citizens have the right to hold citizenship from more than one country. Immigrants who obtain Canadian citizenship also have the right to retain their previous citizenship. However, it is possible that the country of origin does not recognize multiple citizenships. If this is the case, immigrants have to choose between a Canadian citizenship or their previous citizenship.

In 2006, just 2.8% of the population, about 863,100 people, reported a Canadian citizenship in addition to at least one other citizenship.

Most (80.2%) of those who had multiple citizenship were foreign-born people. The rest of the multiple citizenship holders (19.8%) were Canadians by birth who also reported citizenship in another country.

Among the foreign-born people who held Canadian citizenship and another citizenship, the largest proportion reported citizenship of the United Kingdom (14.7%), followed by Poland (6.6%) and the United States of America (5.4%).


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Portraits of major metropolitan centres

Recent immigrant settlement pattern has largely been an urban phenomenon. Immigrants choose to live in major urban centres to take advantage of the established immigrant communities, economic opportunities and social ties. As a result, recent immigrants have contributed to the changing portraits of urban communities.

*Halifax: Largest foreign-born population in Atlantic provinces

Halifax was home to the largest foreign-born population in the Atlantic provinces. The 2006 Census counted 27,400 foreign-born people living in the census metropolitan area of Halifax. They represented six in 10 (60.7%) of all Nova Scotians born outside of Canada. In contrast, almost four in 10 (39.8%) of the Canadian-born people in the province were living in the census metropolitan area.

Halifax received 5,100 new immigrants, or 0.5% of all newcomers to Canada in 2006. They made up 18.4% of the foreign-born population in the census metropolitan area.

Slightly more than half (51.4%) of the newcomers were born in Asia and the Middle East. The People’s Republic of China (10.7%) was the leading source country of newcomers to Halifax. It was followed by the United States of America (7.6%), the United Kingdom (7.5%), Egypt (7.3%) and India (4.9%).

Map(PDF)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/halifax_recentimmig_ec.pdf
Halifax CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)

*Montréal: The third-largest foreign-born population

The census metropolitan area (CMA) of Montréal was home to the third-largest foreign-born population in Canada. According to the 2006 Census, Montréal has 740,400 foreign-born residents, accounting for 12% of the country’s total foreign-born population. Montréal trailed only Toronto (37.5%) and Vancouver (13.4%).

In the Montréal CMA, the foreign-born population is growing faster than the Canadian-born population. Between the 2001 and 2006 censuses, Montréal’s foreign-born population increased by 19%, nine times the growth rate of Montréal’s Canadian-born population (2.1%).

Montréal: Second-leading gateway for recent immigrants

After Toronto, Montréal was the census metropolitan area (CMA) that received the second-largest number of newcomers between 2001 and 2006. Of the 1.1 million recent immigrants to Canada, 40.4% chose to settle in Toronto, compared with 14.9% in Montréal and 13.7% in Vancouver.

In fact, Montréal’s share of recent immigration to Canada (14.9%) is greater than its share of Canada’s total population (11.5%).

According to 2006 Census data, the Montréal CMA was home to 165,300 recent immigrants, the highest number in the last 25 years. In the recent past, the population of new immigrants was relatively smaller in Montréal. For example, there were 70,100 recent immigrants according to the 1981 Census, compared with 134,500 in 1996 and 114,300 in 2001.

In proportional terms, recent immigrants made up 22.3% of Montréal’s immigrants and 4.6% of Montréal’s total population in 2006.

About two-thirds (64.6%) of the Montréal CMA’s newcomers were between the ages of 25 and 54, compared with 43.3% of its Canadian-born residents. Recent immigrants made up 6.5% of the working-age population in Montréal.

According to the 2006 Census, of the 526,200 children aged 5 to 16 in the Montréal CMA, one in 10 was born in another country, and one in 20 immigrated to Canada between 2001 and 2006.

Of the 28,000 recent school-age immigrants in the Montréal CMA, half usually spoke a language other than English or French at home, and a third spoke French most often at home.

Montréal’s recent immigrants tend to come from francophone countries

New immigrants who settle in the Montréal CMA come from every part of the world, especially francophone countries.

As was the case for several cities across Canada in 2006, Asia (including the Middle East) was the leading source of recent immigrants for Montréal. On the other hand, while most newcomers to Toronto and Vancouver were from Asia (69.8% and 78.2% respectively), only one-third (31%) of the new immigrants living in Montréal were from that part of the world.

Among immigrants born in Asia and the Middle East, the most commonly reported countries of birth were the People’s Republic of China (16,200), Lebanon (5,300) and Pakistan (4,300). In 2006, People’s Republic of China topped the list of birthplaces of recent immigrants to Montréal for the first time, with 9.8%.

The Montréal CMA was home to 60% of all newcomers to Canada with French as their only mother tongue. Moreover, six of the 10 leading birthplaces of new immigrants to Montréal are countries where French is spoken: Algeria (8.7%), Morocco (7.6%), Romania (7.2%), France (6.3%), Haiti (5.2%) and Lebanon (3.2%).

More African-born recent immigrants settled in Montréal than in other census metropolitan areas. Of all the African-born immigrants who arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006, 37% decided to live in the Montréal metropolitan area, while 22.1% chose Toronto and 4.1% Vancouver.

According to the 2006 Census, African immigrants made up more than one-quarter (26%) of Montréal’s newcomers, which made Africa the second-largest source of recent immigration to Montréal.

Montréal is a preferred destination for certain groups of immigrants from Africa. For example, of the 16,200 Algerian-born newcomers living in Canada in 2006, 88.6% were in Montréal. The Montréal area was also home to a large proportion of recent immigrants from Morocco (85%), Tunisia (77.3%), Guinea (69.1%), C?te d’Ivoire (66.2%) and Cameroon (66.1%).

There are still European immigrants in Montréal, though the leading sources of immigration are different from those of previous decades. In 1981, recent immigrants to Montréal were primarily from Western Europe (France and United Kingdom) and southern Europe (Italy and Greece).

In 2006, France was still a major country of birth among immigrants to Montréal, accounting for more than 10,400 newcomers between 2001 and 2006. However, increasing numbers of recent immigrants are from East European countries such as Romania (12,000) and Bulgaria (2,900).

Overall, European immigrants made up 22.5% of Montréal’s total recent immigrant population in 2006.

The other major source of recent immigration to Montréal was from the Americas. In 2006, one in five newcomers were born there, up from 16.7% in 2001. The leading sources of recent immigration from that region were Haiti, Colombia, Mexico and the United States.

Most recent immigrants live in the City of Montréal

In 2006, three-quarters (76.3%, or 126,200 individuals) of the recent immigrants to Montréal census metropolitan area (CMA) were living in the City of Montréal. The city was also home to two-thirds (66.2%) of the Montréal CMA’s foreign-born population and 38.1% of the Montréal CMA’s Canadian-born population. In comparison, the cities of Vancouver and Toronto had a much smaller proportion of their respective CMA’s new-immigrant population: 28.7% for Vancouver and 59.8% for Toronto.

New immigrants living in the City of Montréal came from about 100 different countries around the world. The top five birthplaces were the People’s Republic of China (10.3%), Algeria (10.3%), Morocco (8.5%), Romania (6.2%) and France (5.8%).

While three-quarters (75.2%) of the recent immigrants had a mother tongue other than English or French, most of them (94.4%) reported that they were able to carry on a conversation in English or French.

A growing number of immigrants settled in Montréal’s surrounding municipalities

According to 2006 Census data, the other municipalities with more than 1% of the new-immigrant population of the Montréal CMA were Laval (5.4%), Longueuil (4.7%), Brossard (2.3%), C?te-Saint-Luc (1.4%) and Dollard-des-Ormeaux (1.2%).

Together, those five municipalities attracted 15% of all the Montréal CMA’s recent immigrants in 2006, up from 11.2% in 2001. Laval and Longueuil had the largest increases.

Laval was the second-largest municipality in the Montréal CMA in terms of population. Its foreign-born population rose from 52,500 in 2001 to 73,600 in 2006, or 40.1%, much faster than the foreign-born population of Montréal (14.2%) or the Canadian-born population of Laval (1.5%).

Laval also attracted twice as many new immigrants. In 2001, 4,200 immigrants who arrived between 1996 and 2001 had settled in Laval, while in 2006, there were 8,900 immigrants who arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006.

Laval’s newcomers were from various parts of the globe. The leading birthplaces were Romania, Haiti, Lebanon, Morocco and Colombia.

Longueuil was home to 28,800 foreign-born people in 2006, an increase of 8,500 from 2001. Between the two censuses, Longueuil’s foreign-born population grew by 41.8%, while its Canadian-born population dropped by 3%.

The number of recent immigrants in Longueuil also more than doubled, rising from 3,100 in 2001 to 7,800 in 2006.

The five leading countries of birth of newcomers were Romania, the People’s Republic of China, Algeria, Morocco and Colombia.

C?te-Saint-Luc: Montréal’s municipality with the largest proportion of foreign-born

Of the 1.6 million people living in the City of Montréal, 490,200 — 30.8% of its population — were born in another country.

Only four municipalities in the Montréal CMA had a higher proportion of foreign-born population than the City of Montréal. The municipality of C?te-Saint-Luc led with nearly half (45.4%) of its population born in other countries, followed by the municipalities of Dollard-des-Ormeaux (37.1%), Mont-Royal (34.9%) and Brossard (33.4%).

Map (PDF)

1. Montréal CMA. Recent immigrant population in 1981 to 2006 censuses by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/immcit/maps/cma_hist/MontréalHist_RecentImmigrants_ec.pdf

Map (PDF)
Montréal CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs): Map 1 of 2
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/montreal_recentimmig_ec-1.pdf

Map (PDF)
Montréal CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs): Map 2 of 2
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/12/montreal_recentimmig_ec-2.pdf

*Ottawa – Gatineau: Fifth-largest proportion of foreign-born

The 2006 Census enumerated 202,700 foreign-born people in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Ottawa – Gatineau, an increase from 185,100 in 2001 and a growth rate of 9.5%.

Although the majority (88.8%) of the foreign-born people lived in the Ontario part of Ottawa ? Gatineau, the Quebec part experienced stronger growth. Between the intercensal period of 2001 and 2006, the Ontario part grew by 7.1%. In contrast, the Quebec side grew by 33.8%.

Slightly less than one-fifth (17.3%) of the foreign-born people in the Ottawa – Gatineau CMA were newcomers who arrived in Canada since 2001. These 35,100 recent immigrants represented 3.1% of the total population in the CMA.

As well, the Quebec part of the CMA received an increased share of recent immigrants. In 2001, 1 in 10 newcomers resided on the Quebec side of the CMA. In 2006, the share grew to 15.2% (representing 5,300 individuals) of new immigrants who came within the last five years.

Conversely, on the Ontario part of Ottawa – Gatineau, the share of new immigrants dropped, from 90.1% of all newcomers in 2001 to 84.8% in 2006.

Ottawa – Gatineau ranked fifth in having the largest proportion of foreign-born people (3.3%) and new immigrants (3.2%) in 2006, after Toronto, Montréal, Vancouver and Calgary.

The People’s Republic of China (12.7%), India (4.6%) and the United States of America (4.3%) were the top three countries of birth among the new immigrants in Ottawa – Gatineau.

Map (PDF)
Ottawa – Gatineau CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/ottawagatineau_recentimmig_ec.pdf

*Toronto: Canada’s major immigrant gateway

The census metropolitan area (CMA) of Toronto is still the major gateway for immigrants in Canada.

The census enumerated 2,320,200 foreign-born people in Toronto in 2006, the largest number of any metropolitan area in the nation. Between 2001 and 2006, the foreign-born population grew by 14.1%, compared to 4.6% for the Canadian-born population.

The foreign-born population accounted for 45.7% of the CMA’s total population of 5,072,100, up from 43.7% in 2001. (Toronto is the largest CMA in Canada, stretching from Ajax and Pickering on the east to Milton on the west and New Tecumseth and Georgina on the north.)

Four in every 10 new immigrants settled in the Toronto region

More foreign-born people settled in the Toronto CMA between 2001 and 2006 than in any other metropolitan area.

Of the total of 1,110,000 foreign-born people who arrived in Canada during this five-year period, an estimated 447,900, or 40.4%, chose Toronto. This share was down slightly from the 43.1% of newcomers who settled in Toronto in 2001. These new immigrants made up 8.8% of Toronto’s total population in 2006.

The top two source countries for recent immigrants to Toronto were Asian. In 2006, India surpassed the People’s Republic of China as the number one source country of immigrants settling in Toronto.

About 77,800 newcomers from India, 17.4% of all newcomers, settled in the Toronto metropolitan area. In addition, the census enumerated 63,900 newcomers, 14.3% of the total, from the People’s Republic of China. Combined, these two countries accounted for nearly one-third of all newcomers in the Toronto metropolitan area.

The new arrivals had a major impact on the metropolitan area’s workforce. An estimated 253,600, just over one-half (56.6%), were in the prime working years, aged 25 to 54. They made up 10.8% of this age group in 2006.

Of the 789,400 school-aged children who were between 5 and 16 years old in the Toronto metropolitan area, recent immigrants made up 10.5%. Among these school-aged children, 54.9% reported speaking a non-official language most often at home.

Growth strongest in municipalities surrounding the City of Toronto

The City of Toronto was home to the largest number of foreign-born people in 2006. However, most of the growth in the foreign-born population occurred in the municipalities surrounding the city.

For example, Brampton’s foreign-born population increased by 59.5% during the past five years. In 2006, the foreign-born population comprised 47.8% of Brampton’s total population of 431,600, up from 39.9% in 2001.

In Markham, the foreign-born population grew 34.1% between 2001 and 2006. In fact, in 2006, more than half (56.5%) of its 260,800 residents were born outside Canada.

Mississauga has the second-largest population among the municipalities that make up the Toronto CMA. In 2006, just over one-half (51.6%) of the total population of 665,700 residents were born outside Canada.

Ajax, Aurora and Vaughan also saw increases of more than 40% in the foreign-born population between 2001 and 2006. The foreign-born made up nearly half (44.9%) of the population in Vaughan in 2006. In Ajax, 30.7% were born outside of Canada, while in Aurora, 22.4% of the population was foreign-born.

More than 1 million foreign-born in the City of Toronto

An estimated 267,900 recent immigrants settled in the City of Toronto, according to the census.

These newcomers accounted for about one-fifth (21.6%) of the total of 1,237,700 foreign-born people living in the city in 2006. Another 3 in 10 had arrived in this country in the 1990s.

While the City of Toronto still attracted the largest share of all recent arrivals to the metropolitan area, this proportion has dropped over the past few years. Between 2001 and 2006, the city attracted 59.8% of new immigrants, down from 67.5% during the previous five years, and 71.5% between 1991 and 1996.

More than two-thirds (68.5%) of newcomers in 2006 to the City of Toronto were born in Asian countries. The top five source countries of these recent immigrants were the People’s Republic of China, India, the Philippines, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Chinese, including the different dialects, such as Mandarin and Cantonese, was reported by 17.3% of the newcomers as the language most often spoken at home. Another 4.8% of newcomers spoke Urdu most often at home.

Among the newcomers in the City of Toronto, about one-quarter (24%) spoke English most often at home. However, 1 in 10 reported that they did not have knowledge of either English or French.

Working-aged newcomers (between 25 and 54 years old) accounted for 58.7% of all recent immigrants who had resided in Toronto during the past five years.

In addition, 47,400 school-aged newcomers settled in the City of Toronto between 2001 and 2006. They accounted for 14.3% of all school-aged children in the city.

Markham: Second-highest proportion of foreign-born among Canadian municipalities

In 2006, 56.5% of the population in Markham was foreign-born. Only the City of Richmond in the Vancouver census metropolitan area (CMA) had a higher proportion of foreign-born in Canada. The foreign-born accounted for 57.4% of Richmond’s population.

A total of 18,900 newcomers who came to Canada between 2001 and 2006 chose to live in Markham. They represented just under 1 in 10 (7.2%) residents of Markham’s in 2006.

Recent immigrants in Markham are adding to the already diverse population. In 2006, the vast majority (84.3%) of newcomers were born in Asia and the Middle East. All top five source countries were in Asia: the People’s Republic of China, India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan and the Philippines.

Fully 8% of school-aged children 5 to 16 years in Markham were recent immigrants to Canada. About one-quarter of them reported Chinese as a language spoken most often at home.

Mississauga: Majority were born outside of Canada

Mississauga has taken in an increasing share of recent immigrants over the past decade. In 2001, 14.5% of all newcomers in the Toronto metropolitan area lived in Mississauga. The share grew to 16.7% of new immigrants in 2006. In comparison, 13.1% of the total population in the Toronto metropolitan area lived in Mississauga in 2006.

As a result, the proportion of the foreign-born population in Mississauga increased from just less than half (46.8%) in 2001 to just over half (51.6%) in 2006.

Mississauga is home to foreign-born people who come from all corners of the world. In 2006, the top five countries of birth of recent immigrants there were India, Pakistan, the Philippines, the People’s Republic of China and South Korea. This pattern of migration is reflected in the diversity of the communities in Mississauga.

Brampton: Increasing share of recent immigrants

In 2006, close to one-half (47.8%) of the population in Brampton, or 206,200 individuals, was born outside of Canada. This was up from 39.9% five years ago in 2001.

The increase in the proportion of the foreign-born is largely a result of the number of recent immigrants settling in Brampton. A total of 42,900 recent immigrants came to Canada between 2001 and 2006 chose to live in Brampton.

In 2006, 9.6% of all newcomers to the Toronto metropolitan area lived in Brampton. Just 5 years prior, in 2001, Brampton was home to 5% of all recent immigrants to the Toronto area.

Recent immigrants to Brampton came from all over the world, but most (77.4%) were born in Asia and the Middle East. In fact, two-thirds of all recent immigrants there came from just three countries: India, Pakistan and the Philippines. Jamaica and Nigeria were also among the top source countries for newcomers to Brampton.

The vast majority (95.7%) of Brampton’s population reported knowledge of English or French. The small proportion that did not have knowledge of one of the official languages was mainly made up of recent immigrants who had arrived within five years.

About 3 in 10 said that they spoke Punjabi most often at home. The use of Punjabi reflects the high number of recent immigrants from India and Pakistan who settled in Brampton.

Map(PDF)
2. Toronto CMA. Recent immigrant population in 1981 to 2006 censuses by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/torontohist_recentimmigrants_ec.pdf

Map(PDF)
Toronto CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs): Map 1 of 2
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/toronto_recentimmig_ec-1.pdf

Map(PDF)
Toronto CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs): Map 2 of 2
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/toronto_recentimmig_ec-2.pdf

*Hamilton: Third-highest proportion of foreign-born in the country

Behind Toronto and Vancouver, Hamilton’s foreign-born population of 24.4% was the third highest in 2006 in Canada. This proportion is above the national level of 19.8% and was higher than Hamilton’s proportion of 23.6% in 2001.

Between 2001 and 2006, the foreign-born population increased by 7.7%, while the total population of the Hamilton census metropolitan area (CMA) grew by 4.3%. The growth of the foreign-born population was below the 13.6% national growth rate.

The share of Canada’s recent immigrants who settle in Hamilton has remained unchanged since 2001 at 1.9%. Hamilton was home to 20,800 immigrants who arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006. One-half of them were born in Asia and the Middle East, while nearly one-quarter (23%) were from Europe.

The vast majority of newcomers in the Hamilton CMA reported knowledge of English (85.7%). However, 7.2% could not speak either official language. This proportion is below the 9.3% of recent immigrants in Canada who reported no knowledge of either English or French.

Map(PDF)
Hamilton CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/hamilton_recentimmig_ec.pdf

*Winnipeg: Philippines the number one source country of recent immigrants

The foreign-born population in Winnipeg grew by 10.5% between 2001 and 2006, outpacing the total growth of the census metropolitan area (CMA) which increased by 2.8% in the same period. As of 2006, the foreign-born population was 121,300, or 17.7% of the total population, up from 16.5% in 2001.

About 1 in 5 foreign-born residents of Winnipeg arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006. These newcomers were predominantly born in Asia and the Middle East. The Philippines was the leading source country, with nearly 3 out of every 10 newcomers having been born in the Philippines. India and the People’s Republic of China were also among the leading countries of birth of recent immigrants who settled in Winnipeg.

The share of newcomers who settled in Winnipeg increased to 2.2% in 2006 from 1.4% in 2001. This was low compared to larger CMA such as Toronto, Vancouver and Montréal. But it was higher than comparably-sized CMAs, such as Hamilton and Québec where less than 2% of recent immigrants had settled.

Map(PDF)
Winnipeg CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/winnipeg_recentimmig_ec.pdf

*Edmonton: Attracted a larger share of newcomers in 2006

Edmonton is the census metropolitan area (CMA) where the sixth-largest share of newcomers settled. Among the estimated 1.1 million recent immigrants in Canada, 2.9% settled in Edmonton, up from 2.2% in 2001.

Edmonton has the second-largest foreign-born population in Alberta. In 2006, 189,800 foreign-born were living in the Edmonton CMA, who represented 36% of all Albertans born outside of Canada.

The foreign-born population in Edmonton grew by 14.9% between 2001 and 2006, outpacing the total growth of the CMA (10.6%) and the national growth rate of the foreign-born population (13.6%).

Among the Edmontonians who were born outside Canada, 16.8% arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006. In total, the 2006 Census enumerated 31,900 newcomers.

The majority of newcomers (92.6%) resided in the City of Edmonton in 2006, as was the case in 2001 (91.9%). And, surrounding municipality of Strathcona County saw an increased share of newcomers.

Most of the newcomers to Edmonton (62.1%) were born in Asia and the Middle East. The Philippines (13.4% of newcomers), India (13%) and the People’s Republic of China (12.2%) were the leading countries of birth of recent immigrants who settled in Edmonton in 2006, followed by Pakistan (5.4%) and the United States of America (3.2%).

Map(PDF)
Edmonton CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/edmonton_recentimmig_ec.pdf

*Calgary: Foreign-born population growing faster than the Canadian-born population

Calgary has experienced high population growth in the last several years, and the foreign-born population has added to this increase. In 2006, there were an estimated 252,800 foreign-born residents in Calgary, up from 197,400 in 2001.

The census metropolitan area’s (CMA) foreign-born population increased by 28% between 2001 and 2006, compared with 9.1% for its Canadian-born population. Growth in Calgary’s foreign-born population was one of the fastest in the country. While some other smaller CMAs also had an increase, Calgary’s growth surpassed that of comparably-sized cities such as Edmonton, where the foreign-born population rose 14.9%, and Ottawa – Gatineau (+9.5%).

The foreign-born population made up almost one-quarter (23.6%) of Calgary’s population in 2006, up from 20.9% in 2001. The proportion of foreign-born was the fifth-highest in Canada, after Toronto, Vancouver, Hamilton and Abbottsford.

An estimated 57,900 recent immigrants settled in Calgary. These newcomers made up 5.4% of the city’s total population in 2006

Newcomers to Calgary had an impact on the local workforce. The working-aged population (25 to 54 years old) increased 10.9% between 2001 and 2006. Recent immigrants in this age group accounted for nearly two-thirds of that growth. An estimated 34,100, or 58.8% of all recent immigrants in Calgary were aged 25 to 54.

An estimated 11,700 immigrant children aged 5 to 16 arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006. Recent immigrant children made up 7.2% of all school-aged children in the CMA.

In fact, in 2006, Calgary was the census metropolitan area with the fourth-largest share of newcomers, after Toronto, Montréal and Vancouver. Calgary was home to 5.2% of the estimated 1.1 million recent immigrants who came to Canada, an increase from 3.8% of recent immigrants in 2001.

Recent immigrants living in Calgary came from all around the world, but the People’s Republic of China, India and the Philippines were the top three source countries of recent immigrants. About two-thirds (63.5%) of newcomers to Calgary spoke a non-official language most often at home.

Map(PDF)
Calgary CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/calgary_recentimmig_ec.pdf

*Vancouver: Canada’s immigrant gateway in the West

The population of foreign-born people in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Vancouver increased five times faster than its Canadian-born population between 2001 and 2006, according to the census.

The census counted 831,300 foreign-born people in the Vancouver CMA, up about 92,700 from 2001. Between the two censuses, the foreign-born population in Vancouver increased by 12.6%, compared with the growth rate of 2.3% in the Canadian-born population.

Foreign-born people accounted for 39.6% of the Vancouver metropolitan area’s total population of 2,098,000. (Vancouver is the third-largest CMA in Canada. It consists of municipalities such as the City of Vancouver, Burnaby, Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, Richmond, North Vancouver, West Vancouver, Port Moody, New Westminster, Delta and Surrey.)

In 2001, Vancouver ranked third in its proportion of foreign-born among major Canadian, American and Australian cities.

In 2006, its proportion was second only to Toronto, where the foreign-born represented 45.7% of the population. Vancouver had surpassed that of Miami (36.5%), Los Angeles (34.7%), Sydney (31.7%) and Melbourne (28.9%).

The Vancouver metropolitan area has a long history of immigration. Its foreign-born population has more than doubled in just a quarter-century since 1981.

Back-to-back declines in newcomers to Vancouver

The number of recent immigrants who chose to settle in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Vancouver has declined for two consecutive censuses.

Between 2001 and 2006, an estimated 151,700 newcomers, or 13.7% of all new arrivals in Canada, chose to live in the Vancouver metropolitan area.

This was a decrease from the 169,600 individuals who arrived in Vancouver between 1996 and 2001, and well below the 189,700 who arrived during the early part of the 1990s.

Vancouver was the only metropolitan area of the three largest that experienced a decline in new arrivals during the past five years. Both Toronto and Montréal recorded increases.

The main factor in the back-to-back intercensal decline was a slowdown in immigration arriving in Vancouver from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, which has been the source of many newcomers in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

Just over one-quarter of newcomers in Vancouver are from the People’s Republic of China

Most of the 151,700 immigrants who arrived in Vancouver during the past five years were born in Asia and the Middle East. In fact, the five leading source countries were in this world region.

Just over one-quarter of newcomers (26.2%) came from the People’s Republic of China. In fact, of all new arrivals in Canada who were born in the People’s Republic of China, Vancouver received the second-largest share (25.7%) after Toronto (41.2%).

The other leading source country of Vancouver’s recent arrivals was India, which accounted for 12.4% of newcomers. Vancouver was home to 14.5% of all recent immigrants in Canada who were born in India.

Another 10.9% of Vancouverites who came to Canada in the last five years were born in the Philippines, 7.7% born in South Korea and 4.6% born in Taiwan.

A higher proportion of recent arrivals (57.2%) than the Canadian-born (42%) in the metropolitan area of Vancouver were in their prime working years, aged 25 to 54. Recent immigrants in this age group made up 8.9% of Vancouver’s prime working-age population.

In addition, about 27,600 children aged 5 to 16 who were in Vancouver’s school system during the past five years were new to Canada. These newcomers represented 9.3% of Vancouver’s school-aged population.

As a whole, school-aged children born outside Canada accounted for 18.1% of Vancouver’s school-aged population. Most of them (53.7%) reported often speaking a language other than English or French at home.

City of Vancouver received the highest number of newcomers

Three-quarters of the Vancouver metropolitan area’s newly arrived immigrants (74.7%) chose to live in one of the region’s four largest municipalities: the City of Vancouver, Surrey, Burnaby or Richmond. These four municipalities combined also accounted for 73.5% of immigrants who had lived in the census metropolitan area (CMA) longer than five years.

In comparison, 56.8% of the Canadian-born population in the Vancouver CMA resided in these four communities.

Other municipalities that took in at least 2% of immigrants who arrived in the past five years were the City of Coquitlam (5.9%), New Westminister (2.8%), North Vancouver DM (2.7%), Delta DM (2.4%) and the City of North Vancouver (2.3%).

Being the biggest municipality in the metropolitan area of Vancouver, the City of Vancouver had the biggest population of both longer-term and recently arrived foreign-born people of all the municipalities in the metropolitan area.

The census enumerated a total of 260,800 foreign-born people in the City of Vancouver in 2006, almost one-third of the total foreign-born population residing in the metropolitan area. The city was also the destination of 28.7% of newcomers who arrived between 2001 and 2006.

In contrast, only around one-quarter (23.9%) of the Canadian-born in the CMA lived in the City of Vancouver.

The foreign-born people accounted for nearly one-half (45.6%) of the city’s total population of 571,600. About 7.6% of this population was made up of newcomers to Canada.

Between 2001 and 2006, the City of Vancouver’s foreign-born population grew by 5.3%. However, this growth rate was slower than those of the three other large cities: Richmond (+12.9%), Burnaby (+12.5%) and Surrey (+30.9%).

People born in the People’s Republic of China made up the largest proportion (36.1%) of newcomers to the City of Vancouver. The other leading source countries of newcomers in the city were the Philippines, which accounted for 12.2% of newcomers, followed by India (4.8%), Taiwan (4.2%) and South Korea (4%).

Richmond: Highest proportion of foreign-born among all Canada’s municipalities

Foreign-born people outnumbered the Canadian-born in Richmond, according to the 2006 Census.

Of the 173,600 residents in Richmond, more than one-half (57.4%) were born outside Canada. In fact, Richmond had the highest proportion of foreign-born of all Canada’s municipalities.

Between 2001 and 2006, the foreign-born population in Richmond grew by 12.9%, whereas the Canadian-born population decreased by 2.3%.

About 1 in 10 (10.8%) of Richmond’s population were newcomers who had arrived in Canada within the last five years. Among these 18,800 recent immigrants, fully one-half were born in the People’s Republic of China.

In fact, immigrants from the People’s Republic of China, whether they had lived in Canada for some time or had arrived recently, made up the largest group of the foreign-born population in the city.

Newcomers born in the Philippines accounted for 14.2% of people who arrived in Canada within the last five years. Another 7.4% were new immigrants from Taiwan, 4.7% from the Hong Kong Special Administration Area and 4.3% from India.

Of all school-aged children between 5 and 16 years old in Richmond, 15.4% were recent immigrants who came to Canada in the last five years. The majority (66.3%) of these school-aged newcomers reported speaking a language other than English or French at home.

As the People’s Republic of China was the leading source country of immigrants in Richmond, Chinese dialects such as Mandarin and Cantonese were the languages spoken most often at home by the largest share of recent immigrants living in Richmond.

One-half of Burnaby’s residence was foreign-born

The immigration trend in the Burnaby was similar to that of ts neighbour, Richmond. The 2006 Census counted 102,000 foreign-born in Burnaby, who accounted for almost one-half (50.8%) of its population of 200,900.

As a result, Burnaby had the second-largest proportion of foreign-born in the census metropolitan area of Vancouver, after only Richmond.

Like Richmond, Burnaby experienced a growth of 12.5% in its foreign-born population and a slight drop of 2.3% in its Canadian-born population. As well, about 1 in 10 (10.8%) of Burnaby’s population were newcomers who had arrived in Canada between 2001 and 2006.

Burnaby attracted 14.4% of recent immigrants in the Vancouver metropolitan area, the third-largest share after the City of Vancouver (28.7%) and Surrey (19.3%), and slightly more than Richmond.

The People’s Republic of China was the leading source country of Burnaby’s newest immigrants. It was followed by South Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and India. Collectively, recent immigrants from these countries made up 64.4% of all newcomers to Burnaby.

Surrey had the fastest-growing foreign-born population in Vancouver

Surrey had the second-highest number of foreign-born people of all the municipalities in the census metropolitan area (CMA) of Vancouver, after only the City of Vancouver.

The census enumerated 150,200 foreign-born people in Surrey, nearly 4 out of every 10 (38.3%) of Surrey’s total population of 392,500.

The proportion of the foreign-born people in Surrey was the lowest of the four largest municipalities in the Vancouver CMA. However, Surrey recorded the highest growth rate of the foreign-born population between 2001 and 2006, at 30.9%.

This rate was due to the higher number of newcomers to the city. In 2006, Surrey attracted 19.3% of all new recent immigrants to metropolitan Vancouver during the past five years. During the previous five years, Surrey had attracted only 14.1% of all new arrivals.

In fact, Surrey was the only municipality among the largest four that experienced an increase of share of newcomers from 2001. The shares of newcomers for the City of Vancouver, Richmond and Burnaby all declined.

Overall, newcomers during the past five years made up 7.4% of Surrey’s total population. By far, India was the top source country, accounting for over 4 in 10 (41.9%) of all foreign-born newcomers to the city.

The other source countries were the Philippines, South Korea, the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan and Fiji. In total, newcomers from these five countries accounted for another third (33.9%) of all newcomers to Surrey.

Map(PDF)
3. Vancouver CMA. Recent immigrant population in 1981 to 2006 censuses by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/vancouverhist_recentimmigrants_ec.pdf

Map(PDF)
Vancouver CMA. Recent immigrants as a percentage of total population by 2006 Census Tracts (CTs)
http://blog.jackjia.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/01/vancouver_recentimmig_ec.pdf


Immigration in Canada: A Portrait of the Foreign-born Population, 2006 Census: Other census metropolitan areas

2006 Maps: Percentage of recent immigrants in the rest of the CMAs
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/immcit/tables.cfm#maps

Highlight tables
http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/Immigration/Index.cfm


source: http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/analysis/immcit/index.cfm

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