20061212/维基百科:魁北克寂静革命

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寂静革命正在翻译。欢迎您积极翻译与修订。原文在英文維基。

寂静的革命(Révolution tranquille)指加拿大魁北克省六十年代迅速变化的一个时期。

魁北克寂静革命的主要表现:

把教育迅速地同宗教分离,后者不再受前者的影响和控制;
地方福利(?tat-Providence)思想的建立;
法语魁北克开始改变其民族的身份(从法裔加拿大人到魁北克人)。
以上的变化是大量的改革带来了成果,这些改革的政策最著名的有:

对公立教育大量的投资;
教育部的建立;
工会的建立;
政府促使魁北克人对经济支配的政策;
电的公有化。
目录 [隐藏]
1 起源
2 Education
3 Economic reforms
4 Nationalism
5 External links
6 Important figures
7 See also

[编辑] 起源
寂静革命的具体开始时间并无定论,但在政治领域,让·勒萨格于1960年领导魁北克自由党在省选举胜利后,实行的一系列改革可以看作开端。寂静革命何时结束同样也无定论,但是一般认为1970年10月危机之前,革命已经完成了。

很多事件被认为是这次革命的先兆或者前奏。包括1949年石棉工人罢工事件,1955年的Maurice Richard骚乱,艺术家团体Les Automatistes签署的《完全拒绝宣言》(Refus Global)以及Les insolences du Frère Untel(无名弟兄的鲁莽)的出版,此书抨击了天主教在魁北克几乎无所不在的统治。 政治期刊《自由城市》也被看作是知识分子批判Duplessis政权的论坛。

自1930年代末到1959年,魁北克的政治,教育,经济和社会界都被极为保守的Maurice Duplessis和他领导的政党国民联盟所控制。而罗马天主教自新法兰西时代就通过Company of One Hundred Associates之类的组织对社会施加影响。在英国统治时期,商界通过强有力的院外游说集团来确保加拿大经济有足够的投资,以跟上美国的发展步伐。魁省选举造假和腐败的现象时有发生,教堂为支持魁人党宣传{lang|fr|Le ciel est bleu, l’enfer est rouge}}的口号(天空为蓝,地狱为红-指魁人党(蓝党)和自由党(红党))。罗马教堂方面则控制自由党言论的书的出版。天主教堂掌管法语教学机构和医院。此划分至今还残留的部分为Duplessis孤儿院(Duplessis Orphans)。

由于整个加拿大,包括魁北克的人口较小,从当时至今都一直不能吸引足够的投资。同样的,加国同魁省都需要外来风险投资来推动本地自然资源的开发。例如铁矿的发掘是为了迎合美国的铁需求。Because of Canada’s, and Quebec’s, small population, capital for investment was, and still is, always in short supply. As such, the country and the province of Quebec’s natural resources were developed by foreign investors willing to risk the investment needed. As an example, iron ore was explored for and its mining developed by the United States-based Iron Ore Company. Because of the agrarian, anti-business policies of the Roman Catholic Church and its Seigneurial system that had been rigidly in place for centuries, it was British immigrants, notably the Scots-Quebecers who invested and built the industrialized economy in Quebec, making it the foremost economic center in Canada and a major force in North America. However, the Roman Catholic Church led the rejection of an industrialization effort by former Premier Louis-Alexandre Taschereau. Because of the failure of the ensuing Duplessis government of Quebec to promote business and to establish university business training for francophones to match the rest of Canada and the U.S., the income levels between rural French workers and those in the growing white collar sector began to widen at a time when Canada was looking to grow. The country followed the massive industrialization and technological innovations going on in the United States while trying to cope with the Great Depression. Thus, because the vast majority of French-Canadians could not participate in business solutions, it increased the number of Canadians from other provinces of Canada willing to fill the void. Historians have referred to this period as the Grande noirceur (Great Darkness), but most will add that this period is often perceived as worse than it was.

In many ways, Maurice Duplessis’s death in 1959, very soon followed by the sudden death of his successor Paul Sauvé, served as a trigger for the Quiet Revolution, or rather it unleashed energies that had been held back by the Roman Catholic Church policies for decades. Within a year of Duplessis’s death, the Liberal party was elected with Jean Lesage at its head. The Liberals had campaigned under the very evocative slogans Ma?tres chez nous (Masters of our own house) and Il faut que ?a change (Things have to change).

[编辑] Education
To achieve these goals the Lesage government bid largely on an accrued instruction of its population. The Commission Parent was established in 1961 to study the education system and to bring forth recommendations, which eventually led to the adoption of several reforms, the most important of which was the secularization of the education system. Although schools maintained their historical Catholic or Protestant characters, in practice they were secular institutions since the province was now in charge of the school programs. Other reforms included mandatory school attendance until the age of 16 and free instruction until the 11th grade.

In 1967, C?GEPs were created to offer post-secondary professional public education everywhere in the province. In 1968 the government created the Université du Québec network to achieve similar goals for university-level education. Nevertheless, it would be almost twenty years later when quality business programs were put in place in Quebec’s French-language universities that would equal those of universities elsewhere in North America.

[编辑] Economic reforms
On the economic level, the government sought to increase francophones’ control of the province’s economic sphere, which, until then, had been largely dominated by English Canadian and American investors.

Seeking a mandate for its most daring reform, the nationalisation of the province’s electric companies under Hydro-Québec, the Liberal party called for new elections in 1962. The Liberal party was returned to power with an increased majority in L’assemblée nationale du Québec (National Assembly of Quebec) and within 6 months, René Lévesque, Minister of Natural Resources, enacted his plans for Hydro-Québec.

More public institutions were created to follow through with the desire to increase the province’s economic autonomy. The public companies SIDBEC (iron and steel), SOQUEM (mining), REXFOR (forestry) and SOQUIP (petroleum) were created to exploit the province’s abundant natural resources. The Société générale de financement (General financing corporation) was created in 1962 to encourage Quebecers to invest in their economic future and to increase the profitability of small companies. In 1963, in conjunction with the Canada Pension Plan the Government of Canada authorized the Province of Quebec to create its own Régie des Rentes du Québec (Quebec Pension Plan); universal contributions came into effect in 1966. To manage the considerable revenues generated by the RRQ, and to provide the capital necessary for various projects in the public and private sectors, the Caisse de dép?t et de placement was created in 1965.

A new Labour Code (Code du Travail) was adopted in 1964. It made unionising much easier and gave public employees the right to strike. It was during the same year that the Code Civil (Civil Code) was modified to recognise the legal equality of spouses. In case of divorce, the rules for administering the Divorce Act of Canada were retained using Quebec’s old Community property matrimonial regime until 1980 when the new legislation brought an automatic equal division of certain basic family assets between the spouses

[编辑] Nationalism
The heightened sense of national capacity and identity provided by the multiple reforms resulted in the transformation of the nationalist discourse of Quebec, stemming from political deadlocks between the governments of Quebec and Ottawa since as far as 1867. It is during the Quiet Revolution that the Canadien(ne)s-fran?ais(es) (French Canadians) became Québécois(es), thus marking a distinct evolution from passive nationalism to a more active pursuit of political autonomy. For some, this could be achieved through a reform of the British North America Act, while for sovereignists, the BNAA was considered a null and void act passed by an imperialist foreign power.

In the 1966 election, a post-Duplessis Union Nationale party ridiculed the rapid changes made by the Liberal government and promised reforms if returned to power under leader Daniel Johnson Sr.. While visiting Montreal for Expo 67, General Charles de Gaulle proclaimed Vive le Québec libre! in his speech at Montreal City Hall, which gave the Quebec independence movement further impetus. Though the Union Nationale lost the popular vote, they captured a 6-seat majority government. In 1968, the sovereignist Parti Québécois was created with René Lévesque as its leader.

[编辑] External links
Jean Lesage and the Quiet Revolution, 1960-1966
The Quiet Revolution

[编辑] Important figures
Jean Lesage
René Lévesque
Paul Gérin-Lajoie
Thérèse Casgrain
Pierre Bourgault
Michel Chartrand

[编辑] See also
Le Refus Global
?tat québécois
Quebec general election, 1960
Quebec general election, 1962
Timeline of Quebec history
Quebec politics
来自“http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%AF%82%E9%9D%99%E9%9D%A9%E5%91%BD”

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